Die Unterzeichnung des Reichskonkordats in Rom, Während Hitlers Interesse an dem Reichskonkordat war machttaktischer Natur: Es diente mehr der. Als Reichskonkordat wird der am Juli zwischen dem Heiligen Stuhl und dem Deutschen Reich geschlossene Staatskirchenvertrag bezeichnet. In diesem völkerrechtlichen Vertrag wurde das Verhältnis zwischen dem Reich und der. Vor 80 Jahren wurde das Reichskonkordat unterzeichnet Vizekanzler Franz von Papen das Reichskonkordat, das das Verhältnis zwischen.
Hintergrund aktuellM Das Reichskonkordat. Die katholische Kirche in Deutschland war in den Jahren 19vielfach als Kritikerin des Nationalsozialismus aufgetreten. Die Welt: Was war das Reichskonkordat nun wirklich – Hitlers Dank für die Zustimmung der Zentrumspartei zum Ermächtigungsgesetz vier. Katholische Kirche und Deutsches Reich unterzeichnen Reichskonkordat. von Markus Lingen. Am Juli wurde in Rom das Reichskonkordat zwischen.
Das Reichskonkordat Hauptnavigation VideoWhat is Catholic Church and Nazi Germany?, Explain Catholic Church and Nazi Germany
His pontificate coincided with the early aftermath of the First World War. The old European monarchies had been largely swept away and a new and precarious order formed across the continent.
In the East, the Soviet Union arose. In Italy, the Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini took power, while in Germany, the fragile Weimar Republic collapsed with the Nazi seizure of power.
However, wrote Hebblethwaite, these concordats did not prove "durable or creditable" and "wholly failed in their aim of safeguarding the institutional rights of the Church" for "Europe was entering a period in which such agreements were regarded as mere scraps of paper".
In , Pius signed the Lateran Treaty and a concordat with Italy, confirming the existence of an independent Vatican City state, in return for recognition of the Kingdom of Italy and an undertaking for the papacy to be neutral in world conflicts.
In October , General Groener pushed the German Foreign Ministry to resolve an issue with the Vatican regarding military chaplains who lacked the ability to administer the sacraments of baptism or matrimony without first obtaining the permission of the local priest or bishop.
Discussions between the two parties took place between and and at one point representatives of the Reich pointed out that Italy had an army Archbishop with Cardinal Pacelli indicating that was because Italy had signed a comprehensive concordat with the Vatican.
In January , Hitler became Chancellor. The passing of the Enabling Act on 23 March, in part, removed the Reichstag as an obstacle to concluding a concordat with the Vatican.
With Nazi paramilitary encircling the building, he said: "It is for you, gentlemen of the Reichstag to decide between war and peace. The Catholic Church It had felt threatened by a radical ultranationalist ideology that regarded the papacy as a sinister, alien institution, that opposed denominational separatism in education and culture, and that at times appeared to promote a return to Nordic paganism.
The establishment of the Third Reich seemed to portend the coming of a bitter conflict between church and state.
In early Hitler told Hermann Rauschning that Bismarck had been stupid in starting a Kulturkampf and outlined his own strategy for dealing with the clergy which would be based initially on a policy of toleration:.
We should trap the priests by their notorious greed and self-indulgence. We shall thus be able to settle everything with them in perfect peace and harmony.
I shall give them a few years' reprieve. Why should we quarrel? They will swallow anything in order to keep their material advantages.
Matters will never come to a head. They will recognise a firm will, and we need only show them once or twice who is the master. They will know which way the wind blows.
An initially mainly sporadic persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany followed the Nazi takeover. Hitler was hostile to the Catholic Church ,  but for political reasons was prepared to restrain his anticlericalism and did not allow himself to be drawn into attacking the Church publicly as other Nazis would have liked him to do.
While we write these lines, with news of more arrests and repressions coming to us every hour, we remember that we have reached the Ides of March and the anniversary of a never-forgotten assassination.
But Nazism's daggers cannot slay what is noblest and best in Germany. The Church, now that the Centre is no longer the key-group in German politics, may be persecuted; but HITLER will not succeed where BISMARCK failed.
Robert Ventresca wrote that because of increasing harassment of Catholics and Catholic clergy, Cardinal Pacelli sought a quick ratification of a treaty with the government, seeking in this way to protect the German Church.
When Vice-Chancellor Papen and Ambassador to the Vatican Diego von Bergen met Pacelli in late June , they found him "visibly influenced" by reports of actions being taken against German Catholic interests.
There were some thoughts that the Church was keen on coming to terms with Hitler as he represented a strong resistance against Communism.
The Papal Nuncio in Berlin Cesare Osenigo is reported to have been "jubilant" about Hitler's rise to power and thought that the new government would soon be offering the same concessions to the Church that Mussolini had made in Italy.
John Cornwell in Hitler's Pope argues that the Concordat was the result of a deal that delivered the parliamentary votes to Hitler, thereby giving him dictatorial power Enabling Act of 23 March This is historically inaccurate.
According to "Papen Fails to Get Vatican's Support for Hitler's Plans. Pope Refuses Reconstruction of Centrist Party in Reich and General Concordat.
Civil Service is Purged, German Decree Ousts Non-Aryans and Leftists and Excludes Their Admission in the Future," The New York Times, 13 April , von Papen and Goering were received by Pius XI in April , but their mission was understood to have been a failure.
They had wanted to obtain Vatican support for a scheme to reconstruct the Centre party to insure its stable support of the Hitler government and to conclude a general concordat between the Holy See and the Reich to replace the three present concordats with Prussia, Bavaria, and Baden.
Neither suggestion was approved by the Pope. The failure was interpreted as evidence of the Vatican's lack of confidence in the durability of the Nazi government.
The Vatican was likewise reticent to abandon the existing concordats with Prussia, Bavaria, and Baden for a general concordat with the Reich.
However, there is no question about Pius XII's tenacious insistence on the Concordat retention before, during, and after the Second World War.
The Catholic bishops in Germany had generally shown opposition to Hitler from the beginning of his rise to power.
When the Nazi Party polled six million votes during the 14 September election , the Catholic hierarchy called on its people to examine their consciences.
During the next two years, though there had been softening by some, the bishops continued to pronounce against unacceptable policies of the Nazi Party.
On 12 March Pope Pius XI received the German Cardinal Faulhaber in Rome. On his return Faulhaber reported:. After my recent experience in Rome in the highest circles, which I cannot reveal here, I must say that I found, despite everything, a greater tolerance with regard to the new government.
Let us meditate on the words of the Holy Father, who in a consistory, without mentioning his name, indicated before the whole world in Adolf Hitler the statesman who first, after the Pope himself, has raised his voice against Bolshevism.
At a cabinet meeting on 20 March Hitler "confidently reported" that the Centre Party had now seen the necessity of the Enabling Act and that "the acceptance of the Enabling Act also by the Zentrum would signify a strengthening prestige with regard to foreign countries.
September rechtskräftig. In ihm sicherte das Deutsche Reich der katholischen Kirche in Deutschland innere Autonomie und die ungehinderte Verbreitung ihrer Schriften zu.
Es garantierte die Freiheit des Bekenntnisses und seine öffentliche Ausübung. Das Konkordat schloss jedoch für alle katholischen Geistlichen und Ordensleute die Mitgliedschaft in politischen Parteien oder die Tätigkeit für Parteien aus.
Kirchliche Organisationen mussten sich auf religiöse, kulturelle und karitative Aufgaben beschränken. Die Bayerische Volkspartei BVP und die Zentrumspartei, die Stützen des politischen Katholizismus in der Weimarer Republik, hatten sich zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits selbst aufgelöst, um dem drohenden Verbot zuvorzukommen.
Am Wochenende werden Forumsbeiträge nur eingeschränkt veröffentlicht. Nach zwei Tagen wird die Debatte geschlossen.
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Vielen Dank! Artikel teilen: Gefällt mir. Die Haltung Papst Pius' XII gegenüber dem Deutschen Reich ist umstritten. Reich Concordat between the Holy See and the German Reich July 20, German History in Documents and Images GHDI.
Reichskonkordat with Hitler, : Full text Concordat Watch Complete text: Concordat, Supplementary Protocol and Secret Supplement. As the document states It was not in force until its ratification September 10, Articles 31—32 relate to the issue of Catholic organizations "devoted exclusively to religious, cultural and charitable purposes" and empowered the Reich government and German episcopate to "determine, by mutual agreement, the organizations and associations which fall within the provisions of this article.
The Additional Protocol provisions make clear this prohibition of clergy from political activism does not mean they can not preach on moral teachings and principles of the Church "as it is their duty to do.
Article 29 granted the same rights to national minorities, with respect to the use of the mother tongue in divine services, as were enjoyed by the German population in the corresponding foreign state.
Article 28 assured the Church the right to pastoral care in hospitals, prisons and like institutions, which would be violated later by the Nazi regime when it refused the Church's request to carry out services in concentration camps.
Article 27 regulated the appointment of military chaplains. Article 26 allowed that a church wedding could precede a civil marriage ceremony.
Articles 19—25 gave protection to the Catholic educational system Hitler in due course would disregard them. Article 18 assured the Church that it would be consulted should the Nazi regime [ or existing government ] try to discontinue its subsidies to the German Catholic church.
Article 17 guaranteed, according to the common law, the properties of the church. Article 16 specified Bishops must take an oath of loyalty and respect to either the Reich governor of the state concerned or to the President of the Reich.
Article 15 guaranteed religious orders freedom for pastoral, charitable and educational work. Article 14 specified appointments of a bishop by the Pope was subject to mutual agreement and communication with the regime that no [general] political impediment existed.
Article 13 gave to parishes, Episcopal sees, religious orders etc. Guenter Lewy viewed this qualification as establishing "a pandora's box of troubles" when the law was effectively in the hands of a regime who wanted to control the church.
Articles 11—12 specified that diocesan boundaries had to be made subject to government approval and that ecclesiastical offices could be established if no state funding was involved.
Articles 5—10 dealt with the status of the clergy under German law. Priests were given protection against any interference in their spiritual activities as well as protection against malicious slander or misuse of clerical dress.
Members of the clergy could only accept a state appointment so long as the bishop approved and this permission could be withdrawn at any time for important reasons.
Article 4 assures the Holy See of full freedom to communicate with the German clergy and for the German bishops to communicate with the laity "in all matters of their pastoral office.
Confirms the Vatican having a Papal Nuncio [diplomat in Berlin and the German government having an ambassador in Rome.
Affirms the state concordats, Länderkonkordate, with Bavaria , Prussia , and Baden remain valid. The vagueness of the article would later lead to contradictory interpretations.
When the signing of the concordat concluded today between the Holy See and the German Reich, the undersigned, being duly empowered to do so, have formulated the following explanations which form an integral part of the concordat itself.
His Holiness Pope Pius XI has appointed as his plenipotentiary [ a diplomat granted full power to represent ] His Eminence the Most Revered Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, His Holiness' Secretary of State; and the President of the German Reich [ Paul von Hindenburg ] has appointed as plenipotentiary the Vice-Chairman of the German Reich, Herr Franz von Papen; who, having exchanged their proper form have agreed to the following articles.
His Holliness Pope Pius XI and the President of the German Reich [ Paul von Hindenburg ], led by their common desire to consolidate and enhance the existing friendly relations between the Catholic Church and the state in the whole territory of the German Reich in a stable and satisfactory manner for both parties, have decided to conclude a solemn agreement which will supplement the concordats already concluded with some particular German States Laender and secure for the others the principles of a uniform treatment of the questions involved.
The Treaty with Additional Protocol [in brackets] was signed July 20, It was ratified and in force starting September 10, and remains in force today.
The text of the Concordat was released 22 July and began with a preamble that set out the common desire of both parties for friendly relations set-out in a solemn agreement.
On 20 August the Catholic Bishops conference at Fulda reminded Hitler that Pius XI had:. Church leaders were realistic about the Concordat's supposed protections.
Meanwhile, although the Protestant Churches, being local congregations, remained unaffected by restriction on foreign support, Hitler's government negotiated other agreements with them which in essence put Nazi officials, most of whom were Catholics, into positions of influence or outright authority over Protestant Churches.
Foreseeing the potential for outright State control of their churches these agreements portended, many Protestant church leaders simply reorganized their congregations out of the agreements, causing a schism within the Protestant Churches.
These Protestant resisters attempted to rally Catholic prelates to the dangers portended by these agreements but were simply rebuffed when the Reichskonkordat was ratified.
Many of the Protestant clergy who opposed the Nazi religious program Bekennende Kirche , were later imprisoned or executed. The Concordat was ratified on 10 September and Cardinal Pacelli took the opportunity to send a note to the Germans raising the social and economic condition of Jews who had converted to Catholicism but not Jews in general.
On 4 August the British Minister reported "in conversations I have had with Cardinal Pacelli and Monsignor Pizzardo, neither gave me the feeling of the slightest regret at the eclipse of the Centre [Party], and its consequent loss of influence in German politics.
Pacelli said "I had to choose between an agreement on their lines and the virtual elimination of the Catholic Church in the Reich". This fact constitutes an enormous moral strengthening of our government and its prestige.
On 24 July Cardinal Faulhaber sent a handwritten letter to Hitler, noting that "For Germany's prestige in the East and the West and before the whole world, this handshake with the papacy, the greatest moral power in the history of the world, is a feat of immeasurable importance.
On 23 July a British Minister met Cardinal Pacelli who appeared "very satisfied" with the signing of the Concordat. Von Papen holte am 2. Juli Hitlers Zustimmung zum Entwurf ein.
Nach der erzwungenen Selbstauflösung von Bayerischer Volkspartei und Zentrumspartei am 4. Juli entfiel für den Heiligen Stuhl auch eine Rücksichtnahme auf den politischen Katholizismus und so folgte am 8.
Juli die Paraphierung durch die Verhandlungspartner. Am Juli wurde das Reichskonkordat im Vatikan feierlich durch Pacelli und von Papen unterzeichnet, die Ratifizierung durch das Deutsche Reich erfolgte am September Das Konkordat regelt die wechselseitigen Rechte und Pflichten des Deutschen Reiches und der katholischen Kirche im Reichsgebiet.
Die wesentlichen Vereinbarungen des Konkordats   sind:. Als solche gelten die Ordinarien, die Mitglieder der Ordinariate, die Vorsteher der Seminare und kirchlichen Konvikte, die Seminarprofessoren, die Pfarrer, Kuraten, Rektoren, Koadjutoren und die Geistlichen, welche dauernd einer Kirche mit öffentlichem Gottesdienst vorstehen.
Dasselbe soll im Rahmen des Möglichen mit den unter a erwähnten Priesteramtskandidaten geschehen, die noch nicht die höheren Weihen erhalten haben.
Durch den Konkordatsabschluss mit dem Heiligen Stuhl war es den Nationalsozialisten gelungen, viele ihrer Kritiker aus dem politischen Katholizismus vorläufig ruhigzustellen und das verbreitete Misstrauen von Teilen der katholischen Bevölkerung gegen den von ihnen als unchristlich und kirchenfeindlich angesehenen Nationalsozialismus abzuschwächen.
Aus dem Lager überzeugter Nationalsozialisten gab es schon kurz nach Konkordatsabschluss nicht wenige Stimmen, die in dem Vertrag ein inakzeptables Zugeständnis der Regierungsseite erblickten und in den Folgejahren massiv die einseitige Aufkündigung durch den Staat einforderten, so z.
Joseph Roth — aus dem Reichskirchenministerium. Einmalig dürfte das ausführliche Geheimgutachten des an der Staatlichen Akademie Braunsberg Kirchenrecht lehrenden katholischen Priesters Hans Barion — zum Reichskonkordat sein, das dieser noch im Sommer für Berliner Ministerialkreise verfasste und das vor nicht allzu langer Zeit wiederentdeckt wurde.
Insgesamt wird allerdings das Konkordat nicht nur innenpolitisch, sondern auch international zumeist als ein nicht zu unterschätzender Prestigegewinn für Hitler beurteilt.Das Reichskonkordat Während der Weimarer Republik hatte es lange, aber ergebnislose Verhandlungen des Deutschen Reiches über ein Konkordat mit dem Vatikan gegeben. Nach der Machtübernahme der Nationalsozialisten begannen bereits Anfang April auf Initiative Adolf Hitlers hin erneut Gespräche. Reichskonkordat, más néven birodalmi konkordátum július án, Rómában Eugenio Pacelli bíboros államtitkár (későbbi XII. Piusz pápa) és Franz von Papen német kancellárhelyettes aláírja a birodalmi konkordátumot. A nácik számára az egyezmény csupán propagandafogás. Igen hamar megmutatkozik, hogy taktikai okokból léptek szövetségre a katolikus egyházzal. Concordat Watch - Germany | Reichskonkordat ()- Full text. Here is the complete text- Concordat, Supplementary Protocol and Secret Supplement. Concordat article 27 provides for military chaplains if Germany broke the Versailles Treaty to re-arm, and the Secret Supplement exempted Catholic clergy from military service. The Secret Supplement does not appear in Church-approved translations.